These mostly seasonal and energy-intensive uses vary significantly by geographic location, home size and structure, and equipment and fuels used. The total electrical power consumption was recorded every second, while wind speed and direction, indoor and outdoor temperatures and rainfall were recorded every minute from September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2004. Switzerland is synonymous with mountains. Results: Direct energy, flows linked to the consumption of energy carriers, : standard diet, i.e. The aggregate effect of all options amounts to roughly 50%. In 2008 Switzerland consumed electricity per inhabitant 122% compared to the European Union 15 average (9,052 / EU15: 7,409 electricity use per inhabitant 2008, kWh/person) and 133% compared to the United Kingdom (2008: UK 372.19 TWh per 59.9milj. Its Energy Strategy 2050 seeks to reduce consumption and increase the share of renewables. Faist, M., Kytzia, S. and Baccini, P. (1999) 'The impact of household food consumption on resource and energy management', ely to rise. The average U.S. household consumes about 11,000 kilowatthours (kWh) per year. Switzerland has three main geographic regions: the Alps covering around 60% of the country's total surface area, the Swiss Plateau (30%) and the Jura (10%). Figure 7 illustrates, the energy paths if consumption is set at a moderate growth (0.25% per year) and at a strong, Results show that already with moderate growth, energy reductions that stem from technological change are, counterbalanced. The Swiss economy is service-oriented, but also has a strong, export-focused industrial sector. In order to account for non, technology and lifestyle because it shapes energy demand and reflects co, Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG). Average real residential expenditure on electricity per household 2006–2020 Average electricity demand per ICP for households 1998–2019 Average energy consumption of televisions 2013–2020 How can it be transformed to adapt to the life conditions and the lifestyle desired by singles of any age, families -either monoparental or blended-, by the elderly? The first two processes represent the main direc, the activity, ‘eating’ the main indirect energy use of the activity, i.e. First, it used the nonlinear relationship between population density and land use, while the other two used the linear relationship. informed by scientific judgments and by valuations of “non-scientists”. In the third part of the paper, we will present energy, rebound effects due to commodity consumption growth. person and Switzerland 63,53 TWh per 7,71 milj.person). two systems of indicators of sustainable development. Further increases in household size reduce per capita energy, needs of larger households is the well known fact that infrastructure, and. Also, to develop a framework to make soil sciences less "hard" in order to communicate with general public more efficiently and to draw the attention of "hard" scientists to the importance of cultural and philosophical aspects of soil understanding especially when it comes to policy making and implementation, soil education and soil management. Biedermann, A. The results reveal an astonishing optimisation potential of cooling devices in private households. The results reveal that agricultural production and private households account for most of the system's energy requirements. Calculations on the net import of energy carriers were based on official Swiss energy statistics. Switzerland's national languages are German, French, Italian and Romansh – a multilingualism lived out in practice. So the household use per capita is 2,000 kWh or about ¼ of per capita electricity from all applications. Therefore, we did not define an activity ‘cleaning’, which is energetically of minor, importance, but introduced an activity ‘consuming’, which inclu, Each of the four activities is composed of processes. In this paper, we focus on the overall (primary) energy consumption of households. This conflicting viewpoint emerged already in the first LCA-based environmental rebound effect assessments, which used embodied energy as an indicator, ... Zmeureanu [5] presents energy consumption analysis of a house in Montreal. The resulting electricity deficit should be covered by new renewable energy, further expansion of hydropower, and, notably, by an increase in energy efficiency. The importance of meat consumption has previously been highlighted. 1 However, electricity use in homes varies across regions of the United States and across housing types. The Swiss are keen sports enthusiasts, especially outdoor pursuits. path, i.e. However, the model gives users the possibility to adjust variables to their preferences to account for local specificities and/or to experiment with other than standard trend assumptions. This is higher than the 2014 rate for France (6,233 kWh), Germany (6,225 kWh) and the Netherlands (6,108 kWh), but lower than that of Norway (21,091 kWh), Finland (14,477 kWh), Sweden (12,597 kWh), Belgium (7,225 kWh) and … Switzerland's ultra-modern radio and television, mobile, fixed network and broadband infrastructure makes it a highly attractive location for businesses. At an altitude of 2,883 metres and nestled among the glaciers and imposing peaks of the Valais Alps, the new Monte Rosa mountain refuge rises from the icy landscape like a giant sparkling shard of rock crystal. This was the case in 1975 when plans to build a nuclear power plant in Kaiseraugst (canton of Aargau) had to be abandoned as the result of public protests. The trend scenario was based on official projections for population, and household development, (Table 1) and boundary data concerning traffic development, changes in the building stock and its energy m. and changes in energy efficiency of industrial sectors. Direct energy consumption. This paper first presents a conceptual framework for describing and analysing the direct and, ng, transporting and consuming. Allocation is based on a simplified 28. input/output table. t ‘Ökostrom’ (‘green power’), funded by the Swiss Federal. Energy flow diagram for Switzerland (in PJ/a; 1995). Our framework is oriented. Behavioural changes with regard to direct energy use yield about 15% for all household sizes. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Graphics on the economy, energy, transit, transport, media consumption and social security in Switzerland. Development of population, households and gross energy consumption (1960 = 100). Energy projections, trend (2000 = 100). In the second part we will sketch some, characteristics of the energy use of a two, these determinants on energy use per capita will be shown. We build five In the case of heating technology, insulation and domestic appliances, we assume, ct energy consumption, the second towards commodity consumption. In particular, paper enrolees tended to be older, more frequently affected by progressive MS types and more likely to have accessed healthcare services in the past 12 months. The main sources of energy in Switzerland are oil, natural gas, nuclear power and hydropower. Over the years intense public opposition has scuppered several nuclear power plant projects. Faist, M., Kytzia, S. and Baccini, P. (1999) ‘The impact of household food consumption on resource and energy management’, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Sustainable Household Consumption, Kasser, U., Pöll, M. and Graffe, K. (1999), Maibach, M., Peter, D. and Seiler, B. For the traditional-conservative For household size we used official, space consumption and selected consumer data on food and durable consumption. Water heating The generation of hot water requires typically 1000 kWh per person and year, i.e. lifestyle, there is a lower performance compared with the average. The effects of, sis of trend assumptions about technological and demographic development and assess. A global leader in wealth management, Switzerland's banks, insurance providers and pension funds generate around 10% of the country's value-added. Noorman, K.J. Such data analysis is essential for the demand side management and design of a renewable energy system for the home. The state with the most average energy consumption per home is Louisiana (1273 kWh/mo.) Seven aspects of Switzerland's complex political system presented in simple graphic form. 37-47. Built in several countries, they also have very different scales. On the one hand, behavioural changes can lead, progress. (Excerpt from Soil Connects nº 4). Household electricity use: 6,000 kWh per household per year for 3 residents average per household. This article analyzes how the traditional advisory model, whereby the client adviser and the customer interact in the form of a personal dialogue, could be altered by means of virtual advisory models. income, Swiss average per capita air mileage; income, Swiss average per capita consumption of, According to Figure 2, our person consumes 200 GJ/a (which is exactly the Swiss average): 37 GJ/a are used for, ‘feeding’, 65 GJ/a for ‘housing’, 45 GJ/a for ‘transporting’, and 53 GJ/a for ‘consuming’. Secondly, Swiss data on household, 5%, mainly due to strong increases in gasoline demand. The three datasets all allocated the historical ALCC according to human population density. This paper first presents a conceptual framework for describing and analysing the direct and indirect energy use of households. culture, health, holidays, printed matter, miscellaneous); All energy flows are calculated with an excel, 1999). Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Postfach 611, Überlandstr. pre. In the US typical household power consumption is about 11,700 kWh each year, in France it is 6,400 kWh, in the UK it is 4,600 kWh and in China around 1,300 kWh. Secondly, indirect, consumption, i.e. It is shown that these factors considerably shape per capita energy demand. and Schoot, A.J.M. It is also the third-highest gravity dam in the world. The Federal Council is pursuing plans to free Switzerland from reliance on imported, non-renewable energy. Reductions can be achieved directly by lowering the demand for. The IAEA has established three, Question under study: For this purpose, behavioral categories from the lifestyle sciences Sizing of a renewable energy system for a house using HOMER/HYBRID2 requires load data with a resolution of one hour or better. More accentuated rebound effects occur when. Therefore, this WG aims to bring together existing knowledge and hypotheses on cultural patterns of soil understanding. Switzerland's diverse and permeable education system in essence offers a choice between an academic or vocational education. 3–23. Electricity prices, March 2020: The chart shows the price of electricity for households and businesses in over 100 countries. However, the widespread policies targeting direct energy are unlikely to cause a substantial shift in household consumption to embodied energy. One of the main results is, that there is almost no interrelation between lifestyle types and sustainable development. energy B: increase of energy efficiency in the economic sectors by 8%. When the growth rate of commodities. About 80% of Swiss, commercial energy consumption is attributable to direct use, and 20% to indirect consumption via net imports of goods and services. The national average gas consumption is 11,000 kWh per annum. As the considered implementation scenarios and building stock projections show, the average buildings-sector targets required for the 2000 W society are nonetheless attainable. Households consume more energy embodied in goods and services than they consume with energy carriers. Seven charts portray the most important and prominent aspects of Switzerland’s environment, from geography to animals and plants to waste disposal. In the case of moderate consumption growth, rpreted with caution, as our approach and model did not deal with the, We did not explicitly account for income: it is a well, known fact that per capita consumption of energy is positively, elasticities would help to assess the energy, We did not explicitly account for material stocks as important buffers: this is especially problematic for the, s operation a considerable fraction of the total energy consumption. Predictions are for this number to double during the 21 st century as global warming intensifies storms and torrential rains. Experiences in many countries are described here, showing the, Technological developments and changing customer preferences are placing demands upon the classical way that private banking clients and wealth management are advised by banks. We compared the recruitment dynamics over the first 18 months with the a priori defined recruitment goals and assessed whether a priori defined groups were enrolled who are likely to be missed by traditional research studies. The model for calculating household energy requirements was briefly presented, together with, The results corroborated the significance of consumption behaviour. digital technology. The Electricity price comparison chart shows that price for Electricity (per 1 kWh) in Switzerland is 62.55 % lower than the same Electricity price in , Uruguay. This article analyzes the interactions and possible trade-offs between direct energy consumption and embodied energy requirement of households in Switzerland in order to assess the net impacts of standard energy policies focusing exclusively on direct energy use. Power consumption (cooling, cooking, power for electric kitchen appliances); Hot water consumption (for food processing and dish washing, technology based on fossil fuels); s for food and for restaurant meals and services). Roth and Steiner (1998). We also find an increasing effect of income on both domains, with particularly important effects on embodied energy. If you live close to a river, near the coast, or in a low-lying area, you may want to look away now. Household energy consumption in Switzerland Switzerland has 638 hydroelectric power plants. Utility bills also lacks maximum and minimum power consumption information, step change, daily load variation pattern etc. The state with the least energy consumption per home is Hawaii (515 kWh/mo.) development. lifestyle types oriented on behavior categories, supplemented by two value-oriented lifestyles. Emb. Using a system of equations and an instrumental variable approach, we find that both domains are driven by same determinants, but that there is no evidence for significant substitution between them. Over the period 1990-2009, energy efficiency in the household sector increased by 24% in EU-27 countries at an annual average rate of 1.4%/year, driven by the diffusion of more efficient buildings, space heating technologies and electrical appliances. Regional data are derived by downscaling. Heat a. energy production (mainly waste incineration). Data that entered into the analysis stem from very diverse sources. Global power consumption slowed down noticeably in 2019 (+0.7%) In 2019, global electricity consumption grew at a much slower pace than in recent years (+0.7% compared to an average 3%/year over the 2000-2018 period), due to a slowdown in economic growth and to milder temperatures in … For all options the relative, person households compared with below 10% for five, person households. The KK dataset is better than the other two datasets for two important reasons. Only 7% of this output, person household (which is close to the Swiss average) and look at three, inants of per capita energy consumption: household size, technology, and consumption behaviour. In the, e.g. Switzerland is not only one of the world’s most innovative research nations, but also one of the most competitive. When zero growth per capita in commodities consumption is assumed, overall energy demand will increase by about 5%, mainly due to strong increases in gasoline demand. , Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg. Based on Based on these sociological and environmental lifestyle models, 16 categories of individual The largest reduction potentials can be exploited with shifts from single to two, many goods and services, are shared in larger households by more people than in smaller units. facts and figures about the policy problem at hand is crucial. However, in order to tap the potential in the residential buildings sector, there is an urgent need for immediate action at various levels (e.g. In 2018, the average household in Switzerland managed to set aside CHF1,589 ($1,742) each month in savings, making it one of the thriftiest countries by international comparison. Switzerland - Consumption Economy grows at quickest pace on record in Q3. probability models, pluralism. The typology builds on income and size. The Pongratz dataset was reconstructed by Pongratz and her colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Germany, covering AD 800–1992. as citizens' and stakeholders' policy preferences. production conditions. variables age, education and income can be demonstrated. However, noting the 2009 drop in energy use (to 310 million BTU per person), the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) predicts that energy use per capita will begin declining in 2013, further decline by 0.3% per year on average, resulting in a 2035 projection of 293 million BTU in 2035 (Figure 3). In 2021, a Swiss household with an annual consumption of 4,500 kWh will pay a total of CHF 44 towards the costs of the transmission grid operated by Swissgrid. The goal of this study is to develop a new typology of lifestyles, specifically related to Keywords: Sustainability, Life styles, environmental impacts, everyday life behavior, Ökologische Bewertung mit Hilfe der Grauen Energie. Average per capita energy consumption by household size and activities. ervices, including energy services, of each process. On average, Swiss households use 13.5 GJ of direct compared to 23.3 GJ of embodied energy, suggesting that almost two-thirds of their total energy … Another inceptive study was that of, ... We thus argue that embodied-type effects have no conceptual basis to be regarded as a rebound effect. Introduction Energy consumption data analysis is a basic requirement in the design of a renewable energy system for an isolated/ grid connected house. Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift. computer information tool, the “Personal CO2 Calculator” (PCC). Since 2005 Switzerland has seen a surge in the use of renewable energies such as ambient heat, biomass, wind power and solar power. U.S. households need energy to power numerous home devices and equipment, but on average, more than half (51% in 2015) of a household’s annual energy consumption is for just two energy end uses: space heating and air conditioning. The goal to recruit 400 participants in the first year was reached after only 20 days, and by the end of 18 months 1700 participants had enrolled in the Swiss MS Registry, vastly exceeding expectations. portance of consumption growth as the driving force of. For any PIA methodology the provision of insights, Framed that way (Figure 1; see also Mutzner, 1997), the, energy requirements of households can be split into two main parts: app, fossil fuels, electricity, and other energy carriers; and about 60% is accountable to the consumption of goods and, services. The model is calibrated to Swiss conditions. The framework is based on material flux analysis and differentiates between four household activities feeding, housing, transporting and consuming. and Schoot, A.J.M. Switzerland has a very varied landscape and great habitat diversity. Domestic Consumers, Environment and Sustainability, Th. Thus, energy assessments need to address both direct consumption and indirect consumption via, indirect energy use of households. 133, carriers. Tech: reductions due to technological, s in direct energy consumption; Beh emb: reductions due to, mentioned energy conservation strategies. Auf den Spuren der grauen Energie, SIGA/ASS. Therefore, the KK dataset is more suitable as one of the anthropogenic forcing fields for climate simulation over the past two millennia that is recently concerned by two projects, the National Basic Research Program and the Strategic and Special Frontier Project of Science and Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Electricity consumption grew much faster at an annual growth rate of 1.9%. Per capita household energy consumption in EU-27 and EEA countries only slightly increased over the period (0.4%/year). They suggest that an average Swiss household uses about 37 gigajoules (GJ) of total energy per month. Green Households? In the first part of the paper we will introduce the framework of analysis. The tool supports citizens in discussing and recommending measures on climate change policy. The world’s longest railway tunnel – the Gotthard Base Tunnel – was officially opened on 1 June 2016. Results show that such rigid energy demand will increase 1.55 billion tce by 2020 with average growth rate of 5.2% on static assumption, or 1.3 billion tce if energy conversion efficiency changes from 69% to 71.6%. Electricity is mainly generated by hydropower (59.9%), nuclear power (33.5%) and conventional thermal power plants (2.3%, non-renewable). 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